Entrepreneurial cognition process within a hostile business environment: A research study of high, medium and low performing entrepreneurs of Pakistan

Mohammad Asad Ilyas · Severine Le Loarne · Wajid Hussain Rizvi


This research qualitatively observes and documents the influence of environmental hostility on entrepreneurial cognition at the firm level and how it influences strategy formulation to determine performance in the short and long run. The entrepreneurs have been categorized as high performers, medium performers and low performers and the performance of the entrepreneur is equated to the performance of his/her firm while maintaining focus on the entrepreneur. The results suggest that for all entrepreneurs, terrorism and violence were major elements of a hostile business environment. Different strategies devised by these entrepreneurs to cope with such a situation include work force development, succession planning, conceiving problems as solvable, setting the long term vision for the company and avoiding distractions.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship · Hostile business environment · Business strategy · Cognition process.

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